Object Oriented Programming in Java: Fundamentals and Best Practices

Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming System

Welcome to our introduction to object-oriented programming! In this post, we will be exploring the fundamentals of OOP and how it can be used to build powerful, efficient, and scalable software applications.

Object-oriented programming is a programming paradigm that is based on the concept of "objects," which are self-contained units of data and functionality. By using objects and their associated classes, we can model real-world concepts and relationships within our code, making it easier to understand and maintain.

OOP is a popular programming approach that is used in many modern programming languages, including Java, C++, and Python. It offers a number of benefits, such as encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism, which we will discuss in more detail later on.

Whether you are new to programming or just want to learn more about OOP, this post will provide you with a solid foundation for understanding and using this powerful programming approach. So let's get started!

Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming System

The primary benefit of OOP is reusability. For example, if a developer implements a function once, he can reuse that code repeatedly without rewriting it. In addition, OOP makes adding features to existing applications easier than having to completely. 


Features of OOPS

  • Class
  • Object
  • Inheritance
  • Encapsulation
  • Abstraction
  • Polymorphism



Class is defined as a blueprint for an object. We can create as many Objects for a class. It is often referred to as a template to create an object. Java allows a programmer to create your type using classes. For example, in Java, String is not a primitive data type. It is a class.



An Object is defined as an instance of the class. The object has two characteristic states (attributes) and behaviours.

If you consider a dog an object. The states or attributes of the dog are Breed, Age, and Color. Behaviours are Eat, Sleep, and Bark.



Inheritance is the property of acquiring the non-private properties of a class. We can create a class that acquires the properties means behaviours. By using inheritance, we can reuse the existing code without writing new code for each functionality.



Encapsulation is the property of making fields private and providing access to them via public methods. We can create multiple functionalities and provide access to them via only APIs.


Encapsulation means binding the states (attributes) and behaviours (methods) in a single unit. Class is the best example of Encapsulation in Java. In Java, Encapsulation is achieved by making fields private and providing access to them via public methods. Getter and Setter's methods were used for this purpose.



Abstraction is the process of showing what is essential to the user and hiding all non-essential details. In Java, we can implement the abstraction using Abstract classes and Interfaces.



Polymorphism is an important concept in Java because it allows for greater flexibility and code reuse. It enables Java developers to write code that can adapt to different situations and scenarios, making it more versatile and maintainable.

There are two types of Polymorphism

  • Static Polymorphism 
  • Dynamic Polymorphism
Static polymorphism is achieved through method overloading, which allows a class to have multiple methods with the same name but different parameters. This allows a single method to perform different operations depending on the number and type of arguments passed.
Dynamic polymorphism is achieved through method overriding, which allows a subclass to implement a method already defined in a superclass. This allows an object to behave differently depending on its type at runtime.

Post a Comment